Environment and its Pollution

Environment

and

its Pollution

  Air

  • Composition of air is nitrogen 78.084% oxygen 20.946%. argon 0.934% carbon dioxide 0.033%.

 

 

  • Region of air present around the earth is called atmosphere.

 

 

Earth's Atmosphere Layers ~ India GK, Current Affairs 2020

 

(a)  Troposphere       (b)  Stratosphere

(c)  Mesosphere        (d)  Thermosphere.

 

 

 

  • Most of atmospheric air is present in troposphere.

 

 

  • Ozone layer present in the stratosphere region (at height of 32.50 km) protects the living being from harmful UV radiation coming from the sun.

 

 

  • In 1775 French Scientist Lavoisier performed experiments on composition of air.

 

 

    Air Pollution

 

 

  • It is due to the presence of foreign substances in air. Main air pollutants are SO2,CO, nitrogen oxides, particulates etc.

 

    Smog

 

(a)  Classical smog  It is formed in cool humid climate and is reducing in nature. It is also called London type smog.

 

 

(b)  Photochemical smog  It is formed in day time and is oxidizing  in nature.  It is also called Los Angeles smog.

 

Diseases Caused by Particulars

               Disease                        Cause

        Pneumoconiosis                  Coal dust

         Silicosis                                Silica (from ceramics, glass                                                                and pottery industry)

       Black lung disease                Coal mines

      White lung disease                Textile industries

          Asbestosis                              Asbestos

          Byssinosis                         Cotton fiber dust

 

   Green House Effect

Carbon Dioxide, Methane, Nitrous Oxide, and the Greenhouse Effect - Conservation in a Changing Climate

 

 

  • It is the heating up of earth and its objects due to trapping of outgoing IR radiations by green house gases like CO2, CH4No, O3 chlorofluorocarbon and water vapors.

 

 

  Global Warming

Illustration of Global Warming. | Download Scientific Diagram

 

 

  • It is due to increased concentration of green house gases.

 

 

  • It may lead to melting of ice caps and glaciers, spreading of several infectious diseases like malaria, sleeping sickness etc.

 

 

    Acid Rain

Acid Rain pathway diagram with water and factory Stock Vector | Adobe Stock

 

 

  • The pH of normal rain water is 5.6 due to the dissolution of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

 

 

  • When the pH of rain water is below 5, it is called acid rain (by Robert Augus).

 

 

  • Acid rain damages the marble buildings (Taj Mahal) and monuments, corrodes metal pipes and results in several diseases.

 

  • The main cause of acid rain is oxides of Sulphur and nitrogen. (H2SO4  and HNO3)

RIVERS AND DAMS FOR COMPETITIVE EXAMS

    Water Pollution

Water pollution | Definition, Causes, Effects, Solutions, Examples, & Facts | Britannica

 

 

  • Cholera, dysentery, typhoid etc., are water borne diseases caused by bacteria.

 

  • Mercury causes Minimata disease, chromium and arsenic cause cancer and cadmium causes itai-itai disease.

 

 

  • The usual effect of agricultural run off (due to the presence of nitrates and phosphates) is excessive algal growth in affected water DO is 5-6 and BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) is less than 5 ppm.

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